Nutritional strategies have shown promising results in terms of promoting overall health and wellbeing, reflected externally as more youthful-looking skin. Nutritional interventions can reinforce the skin’s ability to confront intrinsic decline and extrinsic ageing influences. Correlations have been established between healthy-eating patterns and resilience to age-related functional decline. Dietary interventions can improve skin health by combating oxidative stress, inflammatory cutaneous cascades, and glycation. Maintaining healthy concentrations of functional nutrients in the skin helps activate endogenous antioxidant systems and prevents age-related nutrient depletion, encouraging healthy repair and renewal, immune function, and endocrine homeostasis. As certain eating patterns can be beneficial in the fight against skin ageing, while others show aggravation of ageing processes. Certain dietary patterns and nutritional deficiencies are correlated with DNA alteration, carcinogenic behavior, dysfunctional inflammatory activation, and extracellular matrix degradation and crosslinking.

This two-part review aims to show the most promising research, presented over the last 10 years, on key nutrients and dietary patterns influencing skin ageing. The articles reviewed were found via PubMed from 27 scholarly sources, discussing skin ageing and nutritional influences. Nutritional interventions, involving strategic wholefood consumption and supplementation of vitamins, antioxidants, proteins, oligoelements, essential fatty acids, phytonutrients, and probiotics are discussed over the two-part series. Considerations for the method of supplementation, dosing, and the patients environmental and biological circumstance are necessary when formulating an integrative care plan for the management of skin ageing.

In the following article, the author presents the first of a two-part series, analysing the current research on nutritional interventions and skin ageing. In this first article, readers will find some background information on the physiology of ageing, the requirements to keep skin healthy and functioning optimally, and nutritional interventions that may assist in combating common challenges the skin faces as it ages.

Nutraceuticals discussed in Part I of this series, include a number of vitamins; coenzyme Q10;  essential fatty acids; proteins, peptides, and amino acids; and oligoelements. The article includes a discussion on the ability of these nutrients to intervene in the skin’s ageing process and their most efficacious modes of use have also been explored. Part II of the series will follow in a subsequent PRIME Journal issue, discussing additional integrative nutritional strategies, including the use of phytochemicals; probiotics; bimodal supplementation interventions; wholefood considerations; exploration of diet modifications, such as calorie restriction and avoidance of glycation; and finally, some demographic variables and their special dietary needs.

Importance of skin health

Skin, like other organs, suffers progressive functional and aesthetic decline. Skin health reflects internal health and having skin reflecting older age is linked with increased mortality2. In an increasingly ageing society, skin ageing is becoming more of a concern3.


Optimal skin ageing requires an adequate diet backed up with dietary supplements to help resist the constant physical and metabolic attacks from physiological intrinsic processes and extrinsic influences1. Processes attributed to intrinsic ageing are those that occur in response to vital life processes and are difficult to prevent. These intrinsic influences can accelerate ageing, such as the presence of inflammation, hormone irregularities, and nutrient deficiencies4. Extrinsic stressors contributing to ageing include influences such as the environment and climate; allergens; toxins; lifestyle influences including sleep deprivation, smoking, and nutritional choices; and physiological stress. As the body ages, extrinsic ageing processes increasingly challenge the body, and especially the skin, as it attempts to remain in a healthy state of homeostasis1. The oxidative effects of ultraviolet (UV) radiation, especially UVA, has been independently linked to damage to DNA, lipids, and proteins; cytotoxicity; mutations; disturbances in vital cellular signalling; and the degradation of the cutaneous extracellular matrix (ECM)5.

To maintain functional and physical integrity, the skin must be able to confront ageing by preserving its ability to heal and maintain physiological functions1. Nutritional elements are necessary to counterbalance the age-related weakening of endogenous defences. Supporting endogenous defences and combating age accelerators can help preserve tissue integrity, metabolic function, and prevent chronic disease and cancer1. Maintaining the skin’s youthful functional and aesthetic properties means adjusting lifestyle, behaviour, stress management, and arguably the most important element — nutrition1. Diet and oral nutraceuticals may help slow overall ageing processes, including the skin’s. Topical supplementation can help further protect skin appearance and perhaps improve health via protecting its endocrine and immune function6.

Physiology of ageing

To understand how to prevent ageing, it is helpful to understand how ageing occurs. Some of the most popular theories of ageing include oxidative stress, DNA damage, telomere shortening, dysfunctional inflammatory activation, mitochondrial DNA mutations, and chromosomal abnormalities7,8. The effect of sugar on premature ageing is another evolving area of concern9. The decline in functional hormone levels has also been implicated in accelerating the ageing process4. None of these theories alone are sufficient to fully explain changes observed in ageing10.

Without adequate defences, free radicals result in oxidative stress and damage to proteins, DNA, and other cells and tissues responsible for healthy functions11. With age, oxidative damage, and free radicals further induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and accumulation, promoting further cellular compromise and genetic mutation11. Additionally, the cutaneous accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) has become increasingly evident within aged skin10. AGEs react with cellular and extracellular components and go on to cross-link proteins, cause inflammation, contribute to intracellular oxidative stress, and, ultimately, age all tissues9. Oestrogen loss in women during menopause is attributable to the skin’s accelerated intrinsic ageing. Fibroblast activity and the moisture capacity of the skin is quickly lost during menopause leading to collagen decline, skin weakening and increased risk of wrinkling4.

Skin ageing signs and symptoms

Ageing manifests in the skin as dryness, abnormal cholesterol synthesis, carcinogenic behaviour, and a decrease in:

  •   Thickness and strength
  •   Healing ability
  •   Lipid, sweat, and protein synthesis
  •   Immunity and an increased susceptibility to infection
  •   Ability to maintain temperature and fluid balance
  •   Ability to produce hormones, growth factors, and essential vitamins7.

Macroscopically, skin ageing manifests as wrinkles, irregular pigmentation, skin laxity, skin atrophy, elastosis, and the formation of telangiectasia2. Additionally, extrinsic environmental effects are linked to the increased incidence of intrinsic changes as well as premalignant lesions, seborrheic keratosis, and malignant tumours7, 12.

Nutritional intervention for skin ageing

Although there have been suggestions to slow the rate of intrinsic ageing (targeting hormone function, lipid replacement, and inflammation), most scientific research has aimed at slowing the effects of extrinsic ageing13. Mechanisms to prevent extrinsic ageing inlude leading a healthy balanced lifestyle with proper body care, fitness, and stress management techniques. Proper nutrition can activate cellular processes, protect from extrinsic damage, and potentially prevent accelerated intrinsic decline13. Those nutrients beneficial in preventing ROS-related ageing of the skin, need to be present within it, persist in substantial quantities, and possess direct or indirect antioxidative activity14.


As the body ages, both intrinsic and extrinsic oxidative and inflammatory attacks require antioxidants, vitamins, and other nutrients in order to preserve the skin’s ability to function in a healthy manner and maintain its related attractiveness1. The presence and quality of certain nutrients in one’s diet and skin care regimen are important for the skin’s self-protection, repair, and renewal. In reality, nutritional requirements of healthy skin ageing are not so different from that of the body’s1. Extrinsic stressors, most namely UV radiation, additionally challenge the endogenous antioxidant system of the skin and accelerate its dependence on nutritional interventions14. Sun protection and avoidance are to be the gold standard practice in protecting skin from UV radiation, however, they do not protect from other forms of oxidative stress provide whole body protection, and must be diligently reapplied whenever outdoors to be beneficial5.

Because the endogenous antioxidant function diminishes with age, exogenous supplementation becomes increasingly important15. Endogenous defence enzymes depend on dietary nutrients to continue to help protect cells from damage and promote youthful function13. Essential antioxidants include vitamins, amino acids, and other components (squalene, coenzyme Q10). Dietary antioxidants include natural compounds, such as carotenoids and flavonoids/polyphenols11. By quenching ROS and supporting endogenous antioxidative mechanisms, antioxidants may be key in preventing photoageing16.

Additionally, the skin’s endogenous antioxidant system depends on microelements to perform their function properly11. Diet-derived micronutrients are required by enzymatic antioxidants as they confront both extrinsic and intrinsic oxidative insults11. These nutrients promote efficient skin renewal, protection against oxidative stress, and assist in metabolic signal pathways essential to proper execution of these endogenous protective systems1.

Macronutrients, such as proteins, lipids, essential fatty acids, and small amounts of carbohydrates are also necessary for healthy skin function and appearance. Other nutrients, such as some proteins, lactobacilli, and phytonutrients, show promise of promoting skin health13.

Food can supply healthy doses of vital nutrients essential for skin health1. However, in times of stress, growth, extreme weather, menopause, disease, and advanced age, additional support in the form of supplements may be required. In these cases, prescriptions of certain nutrient supplements can be a part of an integrative care regimen for patients looking to improve the skin’s resilience to ageing. Additionally, topical application of other nutrients may be required for improved resilience to the mounting demands of ageing skin1. Topical antioxidants have shown to be valuable in protecting skin and assisting in repair from damaging extrinsic influences such as UV radiation, smoke, and pollution1. In general, nutritional strategies aimed at the skin can be directed at preventing oxidative stress, preventing dehydration, preventing UV damage, and improving immunity1. This review aims to show how incorporating certain nutraceuticals and dietary guidelines could help promote healthier skin ageing.


Nutraceuticals have been defined by the Foundation of Innovation in Medicine (FIM), as any food, or food ingredient, that can provide medical
or health-benefits11. According to Vranesic-Bender, nutraceuticals can also contribute to the prevention or treatment of any diseases and ‘Such products include: isolated nutrients, dietary supplements, genetically engineered ‘designer’ foods, functional foods, and herbal extracts’11. The supplements below have shown promising benefits to skin ageing and may be considered as nutraceuticals in their appropriate use.

Vitamin D

Although vitamin D can be produced endogenously, protective skin care measures and advanced age may make dietary supplementation necessary1. As the body ages, the skin’s capacity to produce vitamin D3 declines. Reduced sun exposure and malnutrition may accelerate the skin’s ability to synthesise vitamin D. It has been reported that by 80-years old, the ability to synthesise vitamin D falls to only about 50% of healthy capacity13.

In the skin, vitamin D is anti-proliferative and immune-regulative1. Some roles of vitamin D in skin health include attenuating the release of inflammatory cytokines and regulating growth and differentiation of tissues, protecting against UVB induced skin damage and carcinogenesis, and inducing expression of antimicrobial peptide genes, preventing opportunistic infection13. One study reported Vitamin D supplementation may serve to preserve facial bones and gingival bone integrity, and therefore, prevent contributing factors to perioral wrinkling and the inward turning of lips associated with ageing17. A positive correlation was also found between 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) levels in the stratum corneum and skin moisture content18.

Since toxicity from food is very unlikely, vitamin D consumption via diet should be ‘first-line’ in those who want to be proactive and use vitamin D supplementation for anti-ageing benefits13. Vitamin D2 and D3 can be obtained from dietary intake of foods, such as fatty fish or egg yolk. Other foods, like milk and cereal, can also be enriched for vitamin D benefits1. Additionally, fish oil often contains safe doses of vitamin D content17.

Topically, vitamin D has been used in some of the oldest-packaged skin preparations for the purposes of assisting in wound healing (A&D ointment)17. It has also been favoured for its ability to act as humectant and prevent transepidermal water loss (TEWL)17. In a study conducted by Russell18, a relationship was found between vitamin D3 supplementation and stratum corneum hydration when treating xerotic skin. The authors concluded that dry skin benefited from topical application of vitamin D317.

Vitamin A and carotenoids

Retinol and its metabolites must derive from diet1. Food sources high in retinol activity equivalent (RAE) include sweet potatoes, kale, carrots, mango, spinach, and papaya17. Dietary intake of vitamin A has shown to positively effect the expression of keratins, collagen, collagenase, transglutaminase and laminin1. Vitamin A contributes to healthy skin sebum content and skin surface PH1. Cosgrove et al2 showed that individuals with diets low in vitamin A were more likely to have wrinkled skin appearance.

Application of topical retinols, have shown to regulate sebaceous gland activity and immunomodulation1. Retinoids have shown to inhibit UV-induced matrix metalloproteinase activity and their mediated breakdown of collagen13. Retinoic acid has been shown to inhibit the release of UV-induced vascular endothelial growth factor and associated angiogenesis7. In cosmetic application, retinoids have been shown to improve fine lines, wrinkles, roughness, and irregular pigmentation3, 13.

[pull_quote align=”left” ]Mechanisms to prevent extrinsic ageing include leading a healthy balanced lifestyle with proper body care, fitness, and stress management techniques[/pull_quote]

Carotenoids include derivatives of vitamin A, such as β-carotene, astaxanthin, retinol, and lycopene. Carotenoids have proven to be powerful lipophilic antioxidants found throughout the human body and especially in the skin6. Carotenoids are best known for antioxidative and photoprotective properties13. As antioxidants, carotenoids serve to protect the skin by quenching singlet oxygen species, forming ROS acceptors, and scavenging peroxyl radicals, protecting both proteins and lipids from oxidative effects19.

Beta-carotene provides special photo-protective benefits as it can also protect the skin by physically absorbing light1. In the diet, β-carotene can be found in foods, such as carrots, pumpkin, sweet potato, mango, and papaya13. The beneficial photoprotective properties have been found to be dependent on both the dose and duration of dietary intake. Positive effects were seen when subjects were given doses greater than 12 mg/day for a minimum of 7 weeks13.

Lycopene is another carotenoid found in red produce, such as in tomatoes, watermelon, and papaya13. Lycopene has been shown to protect the skin against sunburn, decreasing inflammation, and erythema. When consumed in the diet, lycopene plays a key role in mitigating oxidative damage in tissues and preventing cancer13. Although it does not have vitamin A activity, studies have linked increased lycopene concentrations in the skin to increased skin roughness5. Owing to its large molecular size, topical absorption of lycopene is difficult17. One study showed improved absorption when applied in glyceride microemulsion5. Both β-carotene and lycopene have shown to help protect mitochondrial damage of fibroblasts from UV radiation as well as in the prevention of UV-induced erythema7.

Other carotenoids have shown photo and skin‑protective properties. Lutein, zeaxanthin and astaxanthin have shown to be beneficial in both topical and oral modalities19,13. Treatments with lutein and zeaxanthin have shown enhancement of elasticity of skin and hydration. These effects were most pronounced in combination and when given both oral and topical supplementation, proving a synergistic effect in their benefits19. Lutein is found in fruits, vegetables, and egg yolk5. Green leafy vegetables give highest natural yield of lutein. Although, there is some absorption and benefits retrieved from food consumption, carotenoids have much higher bioavailability when given in a denatured form with lipid-containing carriers20. This may suggest that supplements of carotenoids may be superior to retrieval from wholefoods for photoprotection benefits6. Although oral supplementation of lutein has increased efficacy over topical application in terms of protective benefits, studies have shown compounding photoprotective benefits when used together5.

Vitamin C and E

Vitamin C is a water-soluble vitamin with antioxidant capacity in a hydrophilic phase. Like vitamin A, vitamin C is not naturally synthesised endogenously13.

Vitamin C

Vitamin C works as a cofactor for collagen synthesis, an aid in cholesterol synthesis, and by improving the bioavailability of iron and selenium. Additionally, vitamin C’s properties allow it to act physically as a UV filter and metabolically against skin ageing by serving as an antioxidant protector. L-ascorbic acid works complementary to vitamin E, acting as a free radical scavenger and replenishing membrane-bound oxidised vitamin E13. Additionally, vitamin C may help assist in wound healing and prevent hyperpigmentation17. Vitamin C may promote fibroblast proliferation and migration, as well as repair of potentially mutagenic DNA lesions. These activities could also play a role in preventing signs of skin ageing17.

Oral supplementation of vitamin C may help preserve the skin’s endogenous reservoir, which is in danger of depletion in times of UV exposure17. There are four studies, which have shown photoprotective effects of vitamin C when given and in combination high doses orally2. Vitamin C is often used in cosmetics to lighten skin, to protect skin from UV-related damage, and in the preservation of collagen content13.

Vitamin E

Vitamin E is a fat-soluble vitamin consisting of eight tocopherols13. It is the body’s most important endogenous lipid-soluble, membrane-bound, and non-enzymatic antioxidant13, 17. Vitamin E is well studied for its anti-oxidative effects and has shown to protect against both collagen cross-linking and lipid perioxidation13. Vitamin E stabilises cellular membrane damage by inhibiting oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids and protecting proteins containing selenium or sulphur7,17. Of all tocopherols, alpha-tocopherol is the most active and abundant in the human body, it has been most specifically linked to protecting lipids and essential fatty acids in skin and preserving healthy signal transduction and gene expression5.


As mentioned earlier, vitamin E works synergistically with vitamin C. Ascorbic acid stabilises vitamin E’s antioxidant capacity by regenerating it from its oxidised state. Additionally, vitamin E can be recycled by glutathione and coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10)13.

In the diet, vitamin E can be found in a variety of vegetables, wheat germ oil, sunflower oil, safflower oil, seeds, nuts, corn, soy, and certain meats13. Body stores of vitamin E depend on dietary intake of these foods17. Without appropriate vitamin E stores, accelerated rates of skin ageing occur17.

Although some studies have shown UV protection with oral supplementation of vitamin E (1000-2000 iu/daily), others have shown benefits only when given in combination with vitamin C5. Another study showed that although vitamin E supplementation could provide sun protection alone (1200 iu for 7 days), better protection was seen when given in combination. Effectiveness of supplementation was measured in these studies by increased minimal erythemal dose (MED) during irradiation. Placzek et al21 demonstrated benefit of even lower doses of vitamin C (91 g) and alpha tocopherol (500 iu)5. Since both vitamin C and E have reported pro-oxidative potentials with over supplementation, controlled and low dosing of these vitamins is of interest to clinical practice5.

When used topically, vitamin E has shown to reduce erythema in sunburned cells, reducing chronic UVB-induced skin damage, and protecting cells from photo-carcinogenesis13. Additionally, it has been shown that 5% vitamin E applied 24 hours prior to UV exposure has the ability to inhibit inflammatory and collagen degradation pathways by 47%5.

Coenzyme Q10

Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is a fat-soluble coenzyme that is produced and found endogenously13. It plays a vital role in cellular respiration and energy generation. Additionally, CoQ10 serves as a primary defence in epidermal oxidative assault. Its role includes protecting the skin from lipid peroxidation and regenerating fat-soluble antioxidants, such as vitamin E13. Although CoQ10 is endogenously made and ubiquitous throughout the body, natural production, and therefore its availability, decreases with age13. As CoQ10 is involved in collagen and elastin production, its deficiency leads to suboptimally functioning fibroblasts and, consequentially, older looking, sagging skin4.

[pull_quote align=”left” ]Choi et al, found that when subjects were given a daily collagen tripeptide supplement for a duration of 12 weeks, they experienced improved skin hydration and elasticity.[/pull_quote]

CoQ10 can be sourced from oily fish, nuts, spinach, organ meats, broccoli, and whole grains4, 13. Alternatively, oral supplementation can be given at doses ranging from 30–360 mg daily4. Since CoQ10 is fat-soluble, it is best absorbed with fatty meals. Previous studies have shown when 50 mg CoQ10 is concurrently supplemented with 50 mg vitamin E, an increase of CoQ10 was noted in the stratum corneum after 15 to 30 days of supplementation13. Studies have shown that oral coenzyme Q10 (15 mg daily) can protect skin from ageing effects via decreasing free radical damage, preventing DNA damage, construction of collagen degrading enzymes, and protecting ECM proteins12.

Topical placement of CoQ10 has been shown to penetrate the epidermis and reduce oxidation17. Topical and oral supplementation of CoQ10 (60 mg/day) has shown to protect skin from UV damage and its correlated signs, such as wrinkles. CoQ10 has shown to combat skin ageing by its role as antioxidant and encouraging collagen and elastin synthesis11.

Essential fatty acids

Lipids are essential to cell-membrane integrity, intracellular modulation of the strateum corneum, and skin barrier function1. Essential fatty acids also control inflammation and regulate the immune system and microcirculation. The imbalance of free unsaturated fatty acids has been linked to inflammatory skin conditions such as psoriasis and acne. Deficiency in linoleic acid and 18-carbon polyunsaturated fatty acid has shown to be characteristic in skin disorders, resulting from transepidermal water loss1.

Essential fatty acids must be derived from food or by supplements13. Sources of essential fatty acids come from vegetable oils, meats (omega 6, linoleic acid family), fish oil, walnuts, or green vegetables (omega 3 fatty acid family)1. Fish oil supplements are a popular way to get beneficial fatty acids. Fish oil is most often derived from sources, such as mackerel, herring, tuna, halibut, salmon, cod liver, whale blubber, or seal blubber13. These supplements may additionally include small amounts of vitamin E or are combined with calcium, iron, or vitamins A, B, C, or D13. Protection from UV induced inflammation has been seen with use of fish oil supplementation. Topical agents, including essential fatty acids have shown beneficial results for inflamed dry skin conditions17. Low dietary intake of linoleic acid has shown to be positively correlated with the increased incidence of dermatitis and other abnormalities that could contribute to skin-ageing appearance2.

Proteins, peptides, and amino acids

Proteins are important in many physiological functions of the skin, including structural support, enzymatic catalysis, binding, transport, immunity, and in repair processes1. Proteins are made of amino acids, eight of which are essential and, therefore, can only be obtained through diet or supplementation1. This said, the skin’s appearance and resilience depends on the proper production and attainment of these essential amino acids1. Choi et al22, found that when subjects were given a daily collagen tripeptide supplement for a duration of 12 weeks, they experienced improved skin hydration and elasticity. Cosgrove et al2 found that older adults with lower protein intakes had increased incidence of skin fragility. Another study showed that marine collagen peptides, from Chum salmon skin, enhanced wound healing and angiogenesis in rats23.


Deficiencies of oligoelements, such as selenium, zinc, and iron can be manifested in skin conditions and poor appearance1. Deficiencies should be checked for when treating for hair loss, acne, dry skin, poor wound healing, and in the pregnant and ageing populations1. Selenium supplementation has shown to help preserve tissue elasticity by means of attenuating effects of unsaturated fatty acid oxidation11.


Optimal skin ageing requires an adequate diet and supplemental enforcement. Nutritional interventions help protect the skin against the constant physical and metabolic attacks associated with normal physiological intrinsic processes and extrinsic hazards.

As one ages, the skin is met with more challenges, threatening its physiological and structural integrity. Oxidative effects continue to weaken the skin’s endogenous defence, weakening its ability to combat functional decline. The need for exogenous support becomes of increasing necessity with age. Nutritional elements can help strengthen the skin’s natural defence, combat age accelerators, preserve tissue integrity, sustain healthy metabolic function, and prevent diseased processes and even decrease cancer risk. Supplementing the skin with antioxidants, nutrients, and enzymatic cofactors can help prevent age and stress-related depletion of those essential components necessary for maintaining youthful qualities. Proper nutritional support adds ubiquitous skin protection from oxidising pollution, UV radiation and other toxins.

The vitamins, essential fatty acids, proteins, peptides, amino acids, and olgioelements discussed in this paper have all shown some role in assisting the endogenous protective system in its effort to confront continual oxidative insult. Vitamin D supplementation was shown to be especially important in advanced age. Supplementation of vitamin D may serve to enforce immune function; combat dry and weakened skin; and improve resistance to wrinkling, facial bone structure loss, and poor wound healing. Healthy levels of vitamin A in diets and use of topical retinoids on skin, were shown correlated with improved wrinkle scores.

Carotenoids have shown to be strong antioxidants, easily consumed via diet and, when supplemented correctly, β-carotene demonstrated excellent photo-protective benefits. Additionally, carotenoids have shown value in the protection of mitochondrial fibroblasts during UV irradiation, suggesting an anti-wrinkle benefit. When combined via supplementation or via wholefoods, especially through leafy green vegetable consumption, carotenoid benefits appear to be amplified, working synergistically for skin benefits.

Vitamins C and E also have shown complementary and synergistic antioxidant benefits, protecting both structural collagen and lipid integrity. Studies point to the fact that pro-oxidative effects can be prevented by combining antioxidants at their recommended daily allowance, others suggest most ideal sources to be through wholefoods. Other important considerations mentioned and to be discussed further in Part II of this series, are modes of supplementing these various nutrients; some nutrients are best applied topically, others taken orally, while others benefit from bimodal supplementation.

Coenzyme Q10 supplementation has shown photo-protective properties to be beneficial in the prevention of skin ageing, possibly owing to its ability to encourage collagen and elastin synthesis. Appropriate levels of essential fatty acids are vital in protecting the stratum corneum and skin barrier function, all while encouraging better microcirculation and decreasing inflammation throughout the skin. Proper intake of these fatty acids can be achieved via wholefoods and oral supplement modalities. With appropriate intake of essential fatty acids, research has shown improved resistance to UV damage and age-related skin abnormalities in subjects studied.

The proper attainment of essential amino acids has shown improvements in skin hydration and elasticity, essential for youthful skin appearance and resistance to functional and structural decline. Marine collagen has shown enhanced wound healing and angiogenesis in rats. Finally, oligioelement deficiencies may manifest as poor skin appearance and, therefore, supplementation based on signs of these deficiencies may call for due exploration and supplementation considerations.

As much has been learned about the benefits of proper nutrition for the skin, future studies will prove essential to assure best methods of efficacious supplementation. More must be done to help educate providers on how to coach patients wishing to optimise nutritional intake for the purposes of preserving skin youthfulness and preventing accelerated skin ageing.

In The Fight Against Skin Ageing: Nutritional Interventions for Healthy Skin Ageing Part II, additional integrative nutritional strategies will be discussed. Interventions considered will include the use of phytochemicals, probiotics, bimodal supplementation, wholefoods, calorie restriction, and anti-glycation methods.